Bismuth (Bi)

Bismuth is a chemical element with the atomic number 86 in the periodic table. With 0.00002% of abundance, it’s the 71st most abundant chemical element in Earth’s crust.  Element 86 is a pentavalent chemical element that participates in many compounds, as well as a member of the post-transition metals family of elements. The chemical properties … Read more

Lead

Lead (Pb) Introduction Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It’s available in Earth’s crust at 14 ppm and is typically found in the form of several different lead ores. This lustrous heavy metal has four valence electrons and the heaviest stable atom among all other elements of Mendeleev’s … Read more

Thallium

Thallium (Tl) Introduction Thallium is a chemical element with the atomic number 81 in the periodic table. It’s a moderately abundant metal, found in trace amounts in Earth’s crust. In fact, thallium is 10 times more abundant than silver. Being a member of the aluminum family of periodic table elements, this post-transition metal has three … Read more

Tin

Tin (Sn) Introduction Tin is a chemical element with the atomic number 50 in the periodic table. It’s the 49th most plentiful element found in Earth’s crust. Being a member of the post-transition metal family of periodic, the element 50 has four valence electrons and three allotropes.    While the pure, elemental form of tin … Read more

Indium (In)

Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 in the periodic table. It occurs in quantities of around 0.1 parts per million (ppm) in Earth’s crust, and it’s a member of the aluminum family with amphoteric properties. The outer shell electrons of indium adopt the oxidation states +1, +2, or +3 when forming compounds … Read more

Gallium

Introduction Gallium (Ga) is a chemical element with an atomic number of 31 in the periodic table of elements. It mainly occurs as a part of the chemical compounds found in Earth’s crust, in a quantity of 0.0005%.    This chemical substance is a member of the boron family (group 13), which includes the semi-metal … Read more

Aluminium (Al)

Aluminium is a chemical element with the atomic number 13 in the periodic table of elements. It’s the most plentiful metal found in the Earth’s crust. Being a member of the boron family of periodic table elements, this strong and light-weight metal has three valence electrons that help aluminium make numerous compounds with the other … Read more